The development of oxygen consumption calorimetry
Dr. William Parker of the National Bureau of Standards (now the National Institute of Standards and Technology) was awarded the 2016 Philip J. DiNenno Prize for developing the
oxygen consumption calorimetry
, now a foundation of modern quantitative fire protection engineering.
Oxygen consumption calorimetry determines the heat release rate of a fire by measuring the rate at which oxygen is consumed. It is often used to evaluate the fire safety of materials and assemblies, making it a crucial element of modern fire testing methods.
In 1974, while working as a research associate at Underwriters Laboratory, Parker observed that the burning rate of a Steiner tunnel sample was proportional to the oxygen depletion percentage in the exhaust. He determined the heat release rate by recognizing the constancy of heat release per unit of oxygen consumed and published his findings in 1977. Parker worked with Dr. Clayton Huggett, a now deceased colleague, who in 1979 first submitted the journal paper that provided the scientific basis for the constancy of heat release per unit of oxygen consumed as a basis for calorimetry. Their efforts provided a means for measuring the heat release rate of a fire, allowing fire research to move forward with confidence.
The Affordable Residential Smoke Alarm
Lyman L. Blackwell was awarded the 2015 Philip J. DiNenno Prize for his key technological role in development of the affordable home smoke alarm which first hit the marketplace in the early 1970’s. Since then the fraction of American homes equipped with smoke alarms has risen from less than 4% to 94% and American fire deaths have been cut in half.
Technical developments usually evolve from a continuum of work performed by many investigators, inventors and entrepreneurs – each improving on the works of others. But sometimes an individual or cluster of workers makes a commitment to game-changing innovation and overcomes seemingly insurmountable obstacles. This happened in the 1960’s when entrepreneur Duane Pearsall and engineer/inventor Lyman Blackwell set out to “make a battery-powered detector so inexpensive and easy to install that every household could afford one." Assisted by team members like staff engineer Paul Staby, they began to realize their goal when the new battery-powered home smoke alarm hit the marketplace in 1972. Duane Pearsall is deceased and as such is not be eligible to posthumously share the prize with his compatriot Lyman Blackwell. about the Learn more about the impact on public safety and development of the affordable residential smoke alarm.