M06 ­Large Loss Fires and Their Connection with Fire Sprinkler Performance (PDF, 1 MB)
Presenter(s): Andrew Blum and Richard Long, Exponent
Large loss fires (losses greater than 10 million dollars) comprise only a small fraction of the number of fires that occur each year (on the order of 0.001%). However, in the last two decades, this small fraction of fires has resulted in a disproportionate amount of reported fire damage (5–20%), even with the presence of an automatic fire sprinkler system. This session examines large loss fires in the United States and explores the connection between large loss fires and unsatisfactory fire sprinkler performance. By better understanding how and why large loss fires occur, the fire protection community can be better prepared to minimize future large loss fires.

M12 ­Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion — An Overview (PDF, 2.2 MB)
Presenter(s): Tim O'Leary and Matthew Francis, Huguenot Laboratories 
Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion (MIC) has been a recognized problem for decades. This session will provide an overview of the subject. The potential sources of MIC will be identified, and the reasons why it seems to be an escalating problem in the fire protection industry today will be discussed. A sample water test report analysis will provide an understanding of how mineral content is used to evaluate system corrosion processes. The effects of MIC, both financial and its impact on suppression systems’ performance, will be explored. Samples of both pipe and water will be circulated to bring home the seriousness of the problem. Photographs of external conditions will be used to show how they can reveal internal problems prompting further investigation. Methods of mitigating and controlling MIC will also be explored.
Sponsor: Industrial Fire Protection Section 

M17 ­Protection for Storage Occupancies 101 (PDF, 1.2 MB) 
Presenter(s): Russell Leavitt, Telgian Corporation 
The protection of storage occupancies is one of the most challenging fire sprinkler design scenarios to understand and master. Using the 2013 edition of NFPA 13, Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems, this session focuses on the three principles for determining the proper design criteria for protecting storage occupancies: What is stored? How is it stored? How high is it stored? Attendees will come away knowing how to use NFPA 13 with storage occupancies.

M27 ­Applying NFPA 25:  Design Evaluation vs. ITM
Matt Klaus, NFPA
One of the most misunderstood issues in applying NFPA 25, Standard for the Inspection, Testing, and Maintenance of Water-Based Fire Protection Systems, is understanding what a design evaluation is versus what an ITM task is. It is important for all players in the ITM process to understand where the line between NFPA 25 and NFPA 13, Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems, is drawn. This session will walk through the requirements and provide examples of both design evaluation issues and ITM issues found in the field.
Sponsor: Building Fire Safety Systems Section 

M39 ­Flammability Characterization of Lithium Ion Batteries for Storage Protection (PDF, 78 KB) 
Presenter(s): Kathleen Almand, Fire Protection Research Foundation; Benjamin Ditch, FM Global; Richard Long, Exponent, Inc. 
This session reviews a research and testing program designed to characterize the hazard of small format lithium ion batteries in storage to develop sprinkler protection criteria. Sponsor: Fire Protection Research Foundation

M46 ­NFPA 13 Sprinkler Omission Rules Explained 
Presenter(s): Matt Klaus, NFPA
One of the foundations of NFPA 13, Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems, is that all spaces must be sprinklered unless a specific allowance for an omission of sprinklers is made. The rules for omitting sprinklers are often misapplied, leading to insufficient sprinkler coverage in buildings. This session walks through the sprinkler omission requirements in Chapter 8 of NFPA 13 and looks at each of these requirements individually.
Sponsors: Architects, Engineers, & Building Officials Section, Industrial Fire Protection Section

T10 Testing and Reclassification of Aerosol Cooking Oil Sprays (PDF, 597 KB) 
Presenter(s): Matthew Daelhousen, Yogish Gopala, John LeBlanc, and Jeffrey Newman, FM Global
This session will cover the results of a study to assess the hazard level of aerosol cooking oil sprays and determine adequate protection for them. Prior to 2012, cooking oil cans were classified as Level 1 aerosols based on the chemical heat of combustion of ingredients. With a flash point of about 500°F, cooking oil was not included in the calculations for the chemical heat of combustion. However, it was observed that this commodity was more hazardous than Level 1 aerosols and was reclassified as a Level 3 aerosol in 2012. Consequently, it now needs segregation from other items in warehouse occupancies in addition to automatic sprinklers. This session explores the possibilities of avoiding segregation and protecting this commodity with ceiling-only sprinklers.

T15 Using Live Side-by-Side Burns to Enhance Controlled Training Fires to Educate and Advocate for Greater Safety (PDF, 2.5 MB)
Presenter(s): Tom Lia, Northern Illinois Fire Sprinkler Advisory Board
Controlled burns offer valuable firefighter training and public awareness. They effectively teach the public home fire dangers and the need for smoke alarms, escape planning and fire sprinkler systems. A proven alternative to costly structure burns and fire sprinkler trailers are side-by-side flashover/sprinkler units, equipped with identical furniture and smoke alarms. One has a residential fire sprinkler. These dramatic displays cost about $900 to build and can be rehabbed and re-used. This presentation shares tips for building/presenting side-by-side demos that improve local public awareness and education, support firefighter training, and increase local home fire sprinkler advocacy/code adoption. Real-life examples will maximize educational value, local participation and overall success. Presenter has personally assisted more than 300 such demonstrations.

T28 NFPA 25, 2014 Edition: What is New and Different? 
Presenter(s): William Koffel, Koffel Associates, Inc.
The 2014 Edition of NFPA 25, Standard for the Inspection, Testing, and Maintenance of Water-Based Fire Protection Systems, will be considered during the association’s Technical Committee Report Session. This session will identify the major changes and arguments both pro and con for controversial issues that will be discussed
Sponsor: Building Fire Safety Systems Section 

T34 ­What Fire Protection Engineers Should Know About Fire Fighting (PDF, 5 MB)
 Chuck Thacker, Grandview Fire Department and Cindy Gier, CMG Fire Protection Engineering Inc.
The NFPA standards are very detailed regarding firefighting and fire protection requirements. Firefighters and Fire Protection Engineers are on the same side. But do they really communicate? The Fire Protection Engineer provides tools for the firefighter to use. However, are they the right tools?
Sponsor: Society of Fire Protection Engineers  

T36 ­Residential Sprinkler Update (NFPA 13/13R/13D) (PDF, 680 KB)
Presenter(s): Bob Caputo, Fire & Life Safety America; Matt Klaus, NFPA
This session will discuss the changes to the 2013 editions of NFPA 13/13R/13D related to residential fire sprinkler systems design and installation requirements. 

T41 ­Evaluating Fire Protection for Automatic Storage and Retrieval Systems 
Presenter(s): Benjamin Ditch and Weston Baker, FM Global
Automatic Storage and Retrieval Systems (AS/RS) for mini-load storage are becoming an increasingly popular alternative to standard rack systems due to their efficiency and reduced personnel requirements. However, there is currently minimal understanding of their protection needs. A series of fire tests was conducted at the FM Global Research Campus to investigate whether or not commodity stored in AS/RS racks can be adequately protected using the existing guidelines for standard rack structures. The test program included multiple storage media typical for AS/RS (e.g., plastic containers, plastic trays, corrugated board cartons) and the array was a double-row push back design with a height of 25 ft.

T44 ­Road Tunnel Fire Safety — Compatibility of Fixed Suppression and Evacuation (PDF, 672 KB)
Presenter(s): Peter Johnson, Arup
Fixed fire suppression systems in road tunnels and even some rail tunnels are becoming more common. A key question being asked is whether to operate such systems automatically or manually, and particularly, whether that should occur in the evacuation period. This session will discuss the pros

T45 ­Antifreeze Solutions in Sprinkler Systems (PDF, 1 MB) 
Presenter(s): Steven Wolin, Code Consultants, Inc.
The Standards Council recently issued four new Tentative Interim Amendments on the use of antifreeze solutions in sprinkler systems. This session will provide information on the new requirements for the use of antifreeze solutions. In addition, the results of Fire Protection Research Foundation projects on antifreeze solutions in sprinkler systems that supported the code change process will be summarized.
Sponsors: Building Fire Safety Systems Section, Fire Protection Research Foundation 

T61 ­Sprinkler Protection Criteria for Exposed Expanded Group A Plastics (PDF, 5 MB)
Kathleen Almand, Fire Protection Research Foundation; Kerry Bell, UL LLC;  Steven Wolin, Code Consultants, Inc.
This session describes the results of a recent major fire test program to provide the technical basis for sprinkler protection criteria for this commodity in NFPA 13, Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems.
Sponsor: Fire Protection Research Foundation

T64 Changes to the 2014 Edition of the Standard on Commercial Cooking (NFPA 96) (PDF, 47 KB)
Presenter(s): R. T. Leicht, Delaware State Fire Marshal 
NFPA 96, Standard for Ventilation Control and Fire Protection of Commercial Cooking Operations, is constantly being revisited in order to stay current, especially with the development of new products, assemblies, and methods in order to maintain a document that adequately control the hazard resulting in reasonable means to manage cooking operations. This session will review the proposed changes to the current edition of the Standard. This session will be presented though PowerPoint and will use some real-life examples found in the industry to illustrate the concerns, especially those of the AHJ. Attendees will have the opportunity to ask questions regarding application of any of the parts of the standard, whether they are results of modified sections or not.
Sponsor: International Fire Marshals Association

W04 Impact of Home Fire Sprinklers on Fire Injury (PDF, 217 KB)
Presenter(s): Marty Ahrens, and John Hall, NFPA
This session will review the results of a study conducted by NFPA’s Fire Analysis and Research Division to explore the impact — measured in terms of direct and indirect costs — of home fire sprinklers on reducing fire injuries. A comprehensive analysis of fire injury data from a number of sources was conducted to explore effects on burn rates and other injury rates.
Sponsor: Fire Protection Research Foundation 

W06 Recent Developments in Clean Fire Suppression Agents (PDF, 7 MB)
Presenter(s): Mark Robin, DuPont Chemicals & Fluoroproducts
To date, the development of drop-in replacements for the clean agents Halon 1301 and Halon 1211 has eluded the scientific community, despite over 30 years of intensive investigation by hundreds of researchers worldwide and the screening of thousands of candidate molecules. In this lecture we will describe in detail the development of the halon clean agents and their unique combination of physical, chemical, toxicological and fire suppression characteristics, and will also report the results of recent efforts at DuPont to identify the elusive “Son of Halon.” These efforts include the development of new laboratory scale Class A test methods, and the determination of the physical, chemical, toxicological, environmental and fire suppression characteristics of a new class of clean agents.
Sponsor: Society of Fire Protection Engineers

W13 Protecting Vegetable Oil in Consumer Packaging in 40-Foot-High Buildings
 John LeBlanc and Seth Sienkiewicz, FM Global
Existing test data provides protection options for cooking oils in consumer size packaging (48 oz) stored both in palletized arrays and for rack storage arrangements within a building 30 ft in height. The protection options cover both ceiling-only designs with K14 quick-response sprinklers as well as designs utilizing in-rack sprinklers. A recent full-scale fire test program was conducted to expand available protection options to ceiling heights up to 40 ft, as well as investigate the use of K25 quick-response sprinklers for the hazard. This session presents the results of the testing program and proposed protection options.
Sponsor: Society of Fire Protection Engineers

W22 Sprinkler Protection for Cloud Ceilings (PDF, 450 KB)
Jason Floyd, Hughes Associates, Inc.
The results of a Fire Protection Research Foundation funded project on sprinkler protection for cloud ceilings will be presented. A primary goal of the project was to determine conditions where sprinklers on the structural ceiling are not needed/effective. A review will be made of prior research on sprinkler protection for cloud ceilings. An overview will be given of experiments and modeling performed for the project to examine the impact of cloud ceiling configuration on sprinkler performance. Recommendations for sprinkler installation on cloud ceilings will be provided.
Sponsors: Architects, Engineers, & Building Officials Section, Fire Protection Research Foundation

W28 Plastic Aerosols: A Unique Path to the Market (PDF, 173 KB)
David Fredrickson, Fredrickson & Associates, LLC; John LeBlanc, FM Global
The hazard created by aerosols is well understood and provided in NFPA 30B, Code for the Manufacture and Storage of Aerosol Products. However, that hazard is tied to a product that consists of a propellant and product in a metal aerosol can. The manufacturers of aerosol products are always looking for ways to deliver a better product to their customers, and using a plastic aerosol bottle offers manufacturers some advantages over the metal bottle. However, the fire hazard created by a plastic aerosol was not understood. This session covers the path taken by the U.S. aerosol manufacturers to define the hazards of plastic aerosols, to identify protection options, and to provide guidance in NFPA 30B. Ultimately their goal was to deliver a product to market that is useful and adequately protected in storage.
Sponsor: Industrial Fire Protection Section, Society of Fire Protection Engineers

W49 Engineering Performance of Water Mist Fire Protection Systems with Antifreeze (PDF, 671 KB)
Stephen Jaskolka, Jeffrey Rosen and Michael Szkutak, Worcester Polytechnic Institute 
The use of antifreeze in a water mist fire suppression system offers a potential alternative to the current applications of these systems in subfreezing environments. This session investigates the use of antifreeze of various chemical compositions and concentrations in water mist systems by evaluating variables for spray characteristics, risk of system failure, and interactions of the discharged agent with the fire. Extensive testing and analysis demonstrated that no antifreeze solution behaves ideally with respect to key study variables; however, some antifreeze solutions are potentially suitable at certain discharge pressures and solution concentrations. This testing provides the baseline information for the selection of such an antifreeze for use in water mist systems.
Sponsors: Building Fire Safety Systems Section, Fire Science and Technology Educators Section

W52 Reviewing Sprinkler Hydraulics (PDF, 1.4 MB) 
Bob Caputo, Fire & Life Safety America
This session will show how to check sprinkler hydraulics without having to actually do the math. Easy, fast, and accurate.