M14 ­Case Study: One Approach to Combustible Dust Explosion Protection Using ATEX and NFPA (PDF, 648 KB)
Presenter(s): Johannes Lottermann, REMBE, Inc.
A case study will be presented that illustrates the proper approach to combustible dust explosion protection of an enclosure/process in a manufacturing facility. Much of the venting and isolation equipment used for comdust protection in the U.S. is ATEX approved. Yet, NFPA standards are used to determine what equipment is required. This session will highlight one approach to protection and will discuss both ATEX and NFPA standards. The similarities and differences as well as the value of ATEX approval will be explained. The session will also explain the need for following NFPA standards. At the end of this session, attendees will have a much better understanding of the value of ATEX approval and the necessity of following the NFPA standards.

M32 ­Management of Time-Sensitive Reactive and Unstable Chemicals (PDF, 459 KB)
Presenter(s): Andrew Minister, Battelle Pacific Northwest National Laboratories
Time-sensitive reactive and unstable chemicals have the special ability to become significantly more hazardous just from storage — safety data sheets do not tell the full story of the hazardous aspects. Based on the requirements in Chapter 9 of NFPA 45, Standard on Fire Protection for Laboratories Using Chemicals, this session will show participants how to recognize and manage the risks for four groups of reactive or unstable chemicals that can become hazardous during storage. This session will help participants understand the significance of the materials by showing lessons learned from chemical events that have occurred due to improper storage and management. Learn how these chemicals change over time and how to store and manage them safely to prevent an emergency situation.
Sponsor: Industrial Fire Protection Section 

M41 Process Safety and OSHA, Seven Keys to Surviving a Chem NEP Audit (PDF, 293 KB)
Presenter(s): John Newqusit, OSHA 
This session will discuss what a company will need to know to prepare for an OSHA Chem NEP audit and inspection. Best practices from the speaker’s 30 years of OSHA experience will help any company address common deficiencies and implement best practices.

M51 ­Industrial Firefighting Training — An Australian Perspective (PDF, 6.4 MB)
 Andrew Tegart, Deanmac Emergency Services/ERGT Australia
Today’s industrial fire teams protect all types of major hazard facilities, remote resources projects, and critical infrastructure. This session will compare the suitability of NFPA 1081, Standard for Industrial Fire Brigade Member Professional Qualifications, NFPA 600, Standard on Industrial Fire Brigades, and NFPA 1403, Standard on Live Fire Training Evolutions to the Australian experience and training competencies.
Sponsors: Fire Science and Technology Educators Section, Industrial Fire Protection Section 

T04 Identifying Hidden Hazards That Can Lead to Pressure Explosions (PDF, 187 KB) 
Presenter(s): Jeffrey Foisel and James Haiser, Dow Corning
Unexpected and/or unaccounted-for pressure sources can lead to serious overpressure events (explosions) in both laboratory and manufacturing environments. This session will cover the basic physics and chemistries associated with pressure generation, and the types of hazards created when excessive pressure builds in various containers and systems. The session will review common sources of pressure and provide a set of simple examples to demonstrate how pressure can be estimated and calculated, in addition to typical impact of excessive pressure on various systems, highlighted with a case study. The technical content presented will remain basic but will demonstrate how chemical reactions and temperature can change the pressure of a system, often in unexpected ways.

T10 Testing and Reclassification of Aerosol Cooking Oil Sprays (PDF, 597 KB) 
Presenter(s): Matthew Daelhousen, Yogish Gopala, John LeBlanc, and Jeffrey Newman, FM Global
This session will cover the results of a study to assess the hazard level of aerosol cooking oil sprays and determine adequate protection for them. Prior to 2012, cooking oil cans were classified as Level 1 aerosols based on the chemical heat of combustion of ingredients. With a flash point of about 500°F, cooking oil was not included in the calculations for the chemical heat of combustion. However, it was observed that this commodity was more hazardous than Level 1 aerosols and was reclassified as a Level 3 aerosol in 2012. Consequently, it now needs segregation from other items in warehouse occupancies in addition to automatic sprinklers. This session explores the possibilities of avoiding segregation and protecting this commodity with ceiling-only sprinklers.

T12 Combustible Metal Fire and Explosion Case Studies 
Presenter(s): Elizabeth Buc, Fire & Materials Research Laboratory, LLC
This session will describe a recent Fire Protection Research Foundation project related to combustible metal fires and explosions. This study involved researching fires and explosions involving combustible metals and categorizing them to provide information to the Combustible Metals and Metal Dusts Technical Committee on the hazards associated with these fires, which can be used to support combustibility hazards and evaluations.
Sponsor: Fire Protection Research Foundation

T17 ­Responders/Workers at Risk during Disaster Recovery and Cleanup (PDF, 218 KB)
Presenter(s): SeaRay Beltran, County of Maui
Assuring the safety and health of workers in the aftermath of any disaster requires planning and consideration of several issues. These operations can be very hazardous to workers. Depending on the type of disaster, these salvage cleanup and recovery operations can involve many exposures to workers, including hazardous chemicals, fuel and oil spill hazards, heat stress, electrical hazards, and structural safety just to name a few. A major recovery operation will require more than the capabilities of internal staff. It will likely require working with contractors and salvage specialists.
Sponsor: Industrial Fire Protection Section 

T24 Industrial/Ammonia Refrigeration — Inspection and Emergency Response Considerations (PDF, 810 KB)  
Presenter(s): Jeffrey Shapiro, International Code Consultants
Occupancies with cold storage and refrigerated food processing can be found in most jurisdictions, and they are essential to the delivery of perishable food products. This program provides a basis for effective pre-planning, inspection, and emergency response for these facilities, including instruction on how refrigeration systems work and on chemical refrigerants that these systems use, typically ammonia. Armed with knowledge of how industrial refrigeration systems operate, facility operators, inspectors, and emergency responders will be better prepared to prevent and manage incidents to ensure public and emergency responder safety.
Sponsors: Industrial Fire Protection Section, International Fire Marshals Association 

T51 ­Design Flexibility in Managing Dust Explosion Hazards (PDF, 259 KB)
Presenter(s): John Cholin, J.M. Cholin Consultants, Inc.; Bill Stevenson, CV Technology, Inc. 
While the NFPA dust standards are good at prescribing an approach to managing dust explosion hazards there are many times when the realities on the ground, at the site, make it very difficult if not impossible to use a simple, straight-forward prescriptive approach. The presenters use actual case studies to show how one can make use of practical options and performance-equivalent alternative designs to achieve the objectives of the standards where the prescriptive approach is not an option.

T61 ­Sprinkler Protection Criteria for Exposed Expanded Group A Plastics (PDF, 5 MB)
Kathleen Almand, Fire Protection Research Foundation; Kerry Bell, UL LLC;  Steven Wolin, Code Consultants, Inc.
This session describes the results of a recent major fire test program to provide the technical basis for sprinkler protection criteria for this commodity in NFPA 13, Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems.
Sponsor: Fire Protection Research Foundation

T68 ­Fundamentals of Combustible Dusts, Where Are They Now? (PDF, 217 KB)
Presenter(s): Derek Duval, NFPA
Since the establishment of the new technical committee, Fundamentals of Combustible Dusts (CMD-FUN), and a correlating committee (CMD-AAC) for the combustible dusts technical committees (CMD-AGR, CMD-CMM, CMD-HAP, and CMD-WOO), work has begun in the development of a new combustible dust standard focusing on the general requirements applicable to all types of combustible dusts. This session will provide an update of the committee activities, the state of the new standard and the affect on the other industries.
Sponsor: Industrial Fire Protection Section 

W03 Hazard Analysis — What Does It Mean for Combustible Dust Applications? (PDF, 106 KB)
Presenter(s): Guy Colonna, NFPA
The U.S. CSB and OSHA investigations of combustible dust fire and explosion incidents completed during the past decade have shown that basic hazard awareness remains a common factor contributing to those incidents. For that reason, many of the NFPA combustible dust standards contain requirements for performing hazard analyses of processes where combustible dusts might exist. In this session, the basic elements of a hazard analysis will be demonstrated and applied against a typical industrial process where combustible dusts could be formed.
Sponsor: Industrial Fire Protection Section 

W20 Assessing the List of Typical Oxidizers
 Elizabeth Buc, Fire & Materials Research Laboratory, LLC
A new means to assess the hazard classification of oxidizers was recently added to the NFPA 400, Hazardous Materials Code. This session will describe the results of a project that assessed selected oxidizers in the typical oxidizer list in the code to determine if the current class listed in the table is in agreement with the bench-scale screening test criteria.
Sponsor: Fire Protection Research Foundation

W56 The Vulcan Initiative — A Web-based Platform for the Next Generation of Performance-Based Fire Protection Engineering
 Alberto Alvarez and Brian Meacham, Worcester Polytechnic Institute
A new risk-informed performance-based fire protection (PBFPD) process centered around the evaluation of the overall performance of systems characterized by building types and their occupants has been proposed. A central theme is the need to appropriately link data, tools, and methods in characterizing risk and developing appropriate mitigation. This session introduces a web-based platform, called the Vulcan Initiative, where engineers, researchers, and authorities collaborate, share experiences, and learn from one another, in order to enhance the benefits of the PBFPD approach. Outcomes of the collaboration will ultimately result in PBFPD guidelines and standards for specific types of systems, as well as enhanced knowledge for participants. This session includes interactive dialogue with the audienceattendees on both the new PBFPD process and the web-based platform.
Sponsors: Fire Science and Technology Educators Section, Research Section, Society of Fire Protection Engineers