M02 Performance Requirements for Emergency Responder Interoperable Electronic Equipment (PDF, 1 MB)
Presenter(s): Casey Grant, Fire Protection Research Foundation
The fire service and other emergency first responders are currently benefiting from enhanced-existing and newly-developed electronic technologies for use with personal protective equipment (PPE) ensembles. Protective ensembles used by emergency first responders include or will soon include electronics such as communications, GPS and tracking, environmental sensing, physiological sensing, and other components now becoming practical solutions at emergency events. However, overall integration and coordination of these electronic-based technologies on a broad scale is lacking, and a standardized electronics integration platform/framework is needed. Integration of these components with the emergency responder ensemble is required for managing weight, space, heat, and power requirements, as well as to create the least interference and burden to the equipment user. To address this situation, a Fire Protection Research Foundation study has developed performance requirements for the compatibility and interoperability of electronic equipment used by fire service and other emergency first responders.
Sponsor: Fire Protection Research Foundation 

M06 ­Large Loss Fires and Their Connection with Fire Sprinkler Performance (PDF, 1 MB)
Presenter(s): Andrew Blum and Richard Long, Exponent
Large loss fires (losses greater than 10 million dollars) comprise only a small fraction of the number of fires that occur each year (on the order of 0.001%). However, in the last two decades, this small fraction of fires has resulted in a disproportionate amount of reported fire damage (5–20%), even with the presence of an automatic fire sprinkler system. This session examines large loss fires in the United States and explores the connection between large loss fires and unsatisfactory fire sprinkler performance. By better understanding how and why large loss fires occur, the fire protection community can be better prepared to minimize future large loss fires.

M08 ­Investigation of Electrical Receptacle Fires (PDF, 5.5 MB)
Presenter(s): Dan Gottuk, Hughes Associates, Inc.
Although significant casualties and damage are attributed to electrical fires, there is still much uncertainty in clearly identifying forensic indicators of electrical components post-fire to be able to justify whether the component damage was a result of the fire (i.e., a fire victim) or whether it signifies a cause. An experimental study was conducted to assess the fire cause, damage, and forensic signatures of a wide range of electrical receptacles that both initiated electrical overheating fire events and were the victim of a fire exposure. The work provides a technical basis for assessing realistic electrical fire scenarios, improving fire scene interpretation, and evaluating the utility of forensic analysis techniques. The differences between arcing and melting in receptacle components and wiring are addressed.
Sponsor: Fire Science and Technology Educators Section 

M11 ­Smoke Alarm Response and Tenability in Residential Structures
Thomas Fabian, UL LLC
The session will discuss smoke alarm response to ventilation-limited flashover fires, smoldering and flaming fires originating from upholstered furniture and bedding, and kitchen cooking fires in a traditional, single-story ranch house and a contemporary, two-story, open floor plan house. Commercially available UL 217 compliant smoke alarms (conventional ionization and photoelectric, ionization-photoelectric, ionization-carbon monoxide, photoelectric- carbon monoxide, and advanced algorithm ionization) were spaced throughout houses following NFPA 72®, National Fire Alarm and Signaling Code, guidelines. Smoke obscuration, gas concentrations, and temperatures along the path of occupant egress were characterized to assess occupant tenability. Required Safe Egress Times (RSETs) for occupants located in and remote from the room of fire origin were compared to Available Safe Egress Times (ASETs) calculated for the various alarm activation times in the different fire scenarios.
Sponsor: International Fire Marshals Association 

M16 Firefighting Tactics for Combustible Metal Roof Decks
 Peter McBride, Ottawa Fire Services; Cameron McCartney, National Research Council Canada
Commercial roofs with combustible components, such as foam insulation, can lead to complex fires that are challenging to control while keeping firefighters safe. Various tactics have been developed for fighting fires in combustible metal roof decks (CMRDs), including trenching, deck washing, and thermal decoupling. This session presents the results of full-scale experiments where these tactics were applied to three types of CMRDs during controlled fires. Temperature measurements throughout the roofs and visual observations were used to determine the relative benefits and challenges of each tactic, including deployment speed, required crew size, and effectiveness in preventing fire and smoke spread through roofs. 
Sponsor: Research Section 

M21 ­Effect of High Discharge Pressure on Sprinkler Performance (PDF, 352 KB)
Presenter(s): Weston Baker and Bennie Vincent, FM Global 
This session will review a study that investigated the fire suppression performance of quick-response, large K-factor sprinklers for very high-challenge fires. Of specific interest is the performance of these sprinklers at system discharge pressures of 100 psig to 150 psig (6.9 bar to 10 bar).
Sponsor: Society of Fire Protection Engineers 

M29 ­Parameters for Indirect Viewing of Visual Signals Used in Emergency Notification (PDF, 59 KB)
Presenter(s): John Bullough, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute 
Recent research performed for the Fire Protection Research Foundation at the Lighting Research Center at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute suggested that effective intensity, the current metric used to characterize the photometric performance of visual signals, may not be predictive of visual detection of signal lights when these are viewed indirectly or in the far-peripheral field of view. Based on previous studies by others, RPI suggested that a flashing light should increase the illuminance on the opposite wall by at least 7% in order for this increase to be detected reliably. This estimate has not been validated. In the recent Foundation study, RPI also conjectured that colored light (e.g., red) might be used for indirect visual signaling and that an even smaller increase in vertical illuminance from colored light might be sufficient to be detected reliably. Accordingly, the Foundation and RPI LRC are undertaking a project with the primary goal of identifying whether the 7% increase in light level can be reliably detected by observers with normal vision. A secondary goal is to explore the impacts of colored light.
Sponsors: Building Fire Safety Systems Section, Fire Protection Research Foundation 

M30 ­Assessment of Total Evacuation Systems for Tall Buildings (PDF, 476 KB)
Presenter(s): Enrico Ronchi, Lund University
Building evacuation strategies are a critical element in high-rise building fire safety. Research to date has focused on elevators and exit stairs; however there is a need to apply this research to relocation and evacuation systems which may include combinations of these two exit strategies as well as new egress components such as sky bridges for tall buildings. The Fire Protection Research Foundation has undertaken a project with Lund University to study possible improvements to life safety of tall buildings through an investigation of occupant relocation and evacuation strategies involving the use of exit stairs, elevators, sky bridges, and combinations thereof.
Sponsors: Fire Protection Research Foundation, Fire Science and Technology Educators Section 

M31 ­Performance of Smoke Detectors and Sprinklers in Commercial Occupancies (PDF, 995 KB)
Presenter(s): Jim Milke, University of Maryland 
This session will explore the relative role of smoke detectors and sprinklers in commercial, industrial, and educational occupancies. The session will review results from published research reports to identify statistical information that provides insight on the cause of single and multiple deaths from fire for commercial and industrial properties. In addition, the research involved a collaboration with the Center for Campus Fire Safety (CCFS) to analyze data collected in their Campus Fire Data Reporting System (CFDRS), including fire incidents in on- and off-campus housing. The analysis will provide detailed insights into the causes for the fatal and non-fatal casualties.
Sponsors: Building Fire Safety Systems Section, Fire Science and Technology Educators Section, Society of Fire Protection Engineers 

M33 ­Bushfire and Community Safety in Australia (PDF, 2.6 MB)
Rob Llewellyn, International Fire Protection Pty, Ltd.
The Australasian Fire Authorities Council (AFAC) position on bushfires and community safety was revised in 2010 following the disastrous 2009 bushfires. The position is again being revised to be published in November 2012. The AFAC position promotes the safety of people and their property when threatened by bushfire. The position is based on extensive experience and substantial research, particularly the reactions of human beings when they are preparing for or threatened by fire, leading to many insights into what people will do in response to perceived risk and how they respond when threatened by bushfire. This session will review the research carried out since the 2009 bushfires and present the 2012 AFAC position.
Sponsor: Fire Science and Technology Educators Section 

M38 ­Evaluation of Water Additives for Fire Control and Vapor Mitigation (PDF, 969 KB) 
Joe Scheffey, Hughes Associates, Inc. 
Various water additives are available in today’s marketplace that claim to provide advantageous performance characteristics for fire control and vapor mitigation. Of particular interest are additives that report to provide superior fire suppression capabilities through emulsification or encapsulation. However, a scientific assessment of these various additives is lacking, and the fire protection community would benefit from an evaluation of the various available water additives for fire control and vapor mitigation. To address this situation, a Fire Protection Research Foundation study was established to provide a comprehensive evaluation of water additives used for fire control and vapor mitigation, with the intent to clarify the fire protection benefit of using water with additives for fire suppression versus water without additives.
Sponsors: Industrial Fire Protection Section, Fire Protection Research Foundation 

M39 ­Flammability Characterization of Lithium Ion Batteries for Storage Protection (PDF, 78 KB) 
Presenter(s): Kathleen Almand, Fire Protection Research Foundation; Benjamin Ditch, FM Global; Richard Long, Exponent, Inc. 
This session reviews a research and testing program designed to characterize the hazard of small format lithium ion batteries in storage to develop sprinkler protection criteria. Sponsor: Fire Protection Research Foundation

T02 ­Emergency Responder Research to Practice (PDF, 2.5 MB)
Presenter(s): Mustafa Abbasi, University of Texas - Austin; Jeff Burgess, University of Arizona; Casey Grant, Fire Protection Research Foundation; Joseph Scheffey, Hughes Associates Inc.; Kenneth Willette, NFPA
In the last decade there has been a multitude of research projects addressing important issues relating to emergency responders. This session will provide an overview of selected pertinent projects to enable an interactive discussion with participants to clarify future research needs. The focus will be on research work that is being administered through the Fire Protection Research Foundation, NFPA’s research affiliate. A brief overview will be provided of the most applicable emergency responder related research, and three case study projects will be reviewed in further details to exemplify the work being done. The three case study projects are: (1) International Comparison of SOPs/SOGs; (2) Fire Hose Friction Loss Coefficients; and (3) Next Generation of PASS.
Sponsor: Fire Protection Research Foundation 

T09 The Risk of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) Exposure, Colonization and Infection in EMS Personnel and the Patients They Treat 
Presenter(s): Thomas Walsh, Weill Medical College of Cornell University
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has become a significant problem in health care and community settings. Infection with this “superbug” results in significant morbidity and mortality rates and is recognized as a major public health threat. This session presents the risks of exposure, colonization, and infection to EMS personnel and strategies for reducing those risks.

T11 A Risk-Based Decision Support Tool to Assist Fire Departments in Managing Unwanted Alarms (PDF, 257 KB)
 Marty Ahrens and John  Hall, Jr., NFPA
From 1980 to 2009, the number of fire department emergency responses more than doubled, from 10.8 million to 26.5 million. This was primarily driven by the more than tripling of medical aid calls, from 5.0 million in 1980 to 17.1 million in 2009. Fire department budgets have not kept pace with this rising volume of workload, and particularly in recent years, there has been increased concern about the cost of unnecessary responses. From 1980 to 2009, the number of emergency responses to fires fell by more than half, from 3.0 million to 1.3 million, and the number of emergency responses for fires or mutual aid fell by about one-fifth, from 3.3 million to 2.6 million. However, emergency responses to false alarms during this same time period more than doubled, from 0.9 million to 2.2 million. The false alarm problem has changed over the past third of a century from a problem of malicious false alarms to a problem of non-fire activations of automatic detection and alarm systems. To try to address this issue, the Fire Protection Research Foundation and NFPA have undertaken a research project focusing on developing a risk management tool for local fire departments to aid development of informed strategies to address the unwanted alarm issue in commercial buildings.
Sponsors: Building Fire Safety Systems Section, Fire Protection Research Foundation 

T12 Combustible Metal Fire and Explosion Case Studies 
Presenter(s): Elizabeth Buc, Fire & Materials Research Laboratory, LLC
This session will describe a recent Fire Protection Research Foundation project related to combustible metal fires and explosions. This study involved researching fires and explosions involving combustible metals and categorizing them to provide information to the Combustible Metals and Metal Dusts Technical Committee on the hazards associated with these fires, which can be used to support combustibility hazards and evaluations.
Sponsor: Fire Protection Research Foundation

T23 Understanding the U.S. Firefighter Fatality Problem in 2012 (PDF, 1 MB)
Presenter(s): Thomas  Hales, NIOSH, CDC; Rita Fahy and Kenneth Willette, NFPA
The results of NFPA’s 2012 firefighter fatality study will be presented, along with two or three multi-year analyses of specific aspects of the firefighter fatality problem, including a look at NIOSH’s investigation of deaths related to medical issues. NFPA standards that address issues raised in the fatality study and NIOSH investigations will also be discussed, particularly as related to strategies for local departments to use to minimize chances of such events occurring.
Sponsors: Fire Service Section, Research Section

T29 Smoke Alarm Codes, Standards, and Listings: An Update from UL (PDF, 1.1 MB) 
 Ronald Farr, UL
As part of Underwriters Laboratories’ ongoing work under the U.S. Department of Homeland Security Assistance to Firefighter Grant Program, UL conducted a series of full-scale residential fire and smoke experiments at UL’s fire research and test center in Northbrook, Illinois, during the first part of 2012. A part of these tests focused on smoke alarm responses in flaming and smoldering fire situations. Issues addressed were smoke alarm placement, responsiveness based on the type of alarm and where they were located within the home, as well as audibility of the alarms throughout the homes. This program will provide an overview of ionization and photoelectric smoke alarms, how smoke alarms obtain a listing based on UL 217 criteria, basic code requirements, correct placement, and how to prevent unwanted/nuisance alarms.
Sponsors: Building Fire Safety Systems Section, Education Section 

T35 The Intersection of Fire Safety and Sustainable Building Design (PDF, 3 MB) 
Presenter(s): Louis Gritzo, FM Global; Amanda Kimball, Fire Protection Research Foundation; Brian Meacham, Worcester Polytechnic Institute; Daniel O'Connor, Aon Fire Protection Engineering; Tracy Vecchiarelli, NFPA
This session will be a panel presentation and discussion on the challenges and opportunities for fire safety design in sustainable buildings. The outcomes of a research effort undertaken by the Fire Protection Research Foundation that involved the documentation of a set of green building design elements that increase safety hazards as well as best practices for hazard risk mitigation will be discussed. This session will explore how fire protection research and other critical thinking activities are contributing to sustainability goals. Research in the areas of fire detection, fire suppression, HVLS fan technology, building design and others will be presented, demonstrating that fire safety features and systems applications can be resolved to provide for more efficient, sustainable design. “Green” certifications have been a hot topic in the past few years. Building owners and designers looking to meet these “green” certifications have made changes to building design, technology, and materials. How do these changes relate to fire safety? This discussion will provide an overview of green certifications and how they are being addressed by Codes & Standards.
Sponsors: Architects, Engineers, & Building Officials Section, Fire Science and Technology Educators Section, Fire Protection Research Foundation 

T40 Best Practices for Emergency Response to Incidents Involving Electric Vehicle Battery Hazards 
Presenter(s): Richard Long, Exponent
In 2009, NFPA began a partnership with emergency responders, government regulators, and the automotive industry to develop and implement a comprehensive training program for emergency response to electric vehicle (EV) incidents. Currently, this program provides safety training to emergency responders in order to prepare them for their role in safely handling incidents involving EVs. It has a lack of data to draw on to address the potential hazards associated with damaged EV batteries. In particular, there is very limited, publicly available, validated information regarding response to fires involving electric vehicles and the towing, dismantling, and disposal associated with damaged battery incidents. This research project provides the technical basis for training guidance for first responder emergency response procedures for EV battery incidents.
Sponsor: Fire Protection Research Foundation 

T41 ­Evaluating Fire Protection for Automatic Storage and Retrieval Systems 
Presenter(s): Benjamin Ditch and Weston Baker, FM Global
Automatic Storage and Retrieval Systems (AS/RS) for mini-load storage are becoming an increasingly popular alternative to standard rack systems due to their efficiency and reduced personnel requirements. However, there is currently minimal understanding of their protection needs. A series of fire tests was conducted at the FM Global Research Campus to investigate whether or not commodity stored in AS/RS racks can be adequately protected using the existing guidelines for standard rack structures. The test program included multiple storage media typical for AS/RS (e.g., plastic containers, plastic trays, corrugated board cartons) and the array was a double-row push back design with a height of 25 ft.

T45 ­Antifreeze Solutions in Sprinkler Systems (PDF, 1 MB) 
Presenter(s): Steven Wolin, Code Consultants, Inc.
The Standards Council recently issued four new Tentative Interim Amendments on the use of antifreeze solutions in sprinkler systems. This session will provide information on the new requirements for the use of antifreeze solutions. In addition, the results of Fire Protection Research Foundation projects on antifreeze solutions in sprinkler systems that supported the code change process will be summarized.
Sponsors: Building Fire Safety Systems Section, Fire Protection Research Foundation 

T55 Residential Fire Dynamics
Steve Kerber, UL LLC
The residential fire environment has changed over the past 50 years. Components such as home size, floor plan, construction practices, contents, and construction materials have a systematic impact on fire dynamics. This session will explore these changes and provide full-scale experimental data from house fire experiments conducted at UL. The focus will be on how long occupants have to escape and why more than 80% of fatal fires continue to occur in one- or two-family homes.
Sponsor: Research Section, Society of Fire Protection Engineers

T62 ­Foam for Interior Attack: Myths and Reality (PDF, 1.5 MB) 
Thomas Korman,  California Polytechnic State University; Daniel Madrzykowski, NIST/BFRL
Many fire departments throughout the U.S. have acquired and deployed Compressed Air Foam Systems (CAFS) for use in structural firefighting, but they have since decommissioned CAFS units due to safety concerns in recent years. This session summaries the results of a two-year study conducted by Fire Protection Engineering Program at Cal Poly in partnership with NIST and the Fire Protection Research Foundation to study the application, safety, and effectiveness of CAFS for structural firefighting.
Sponsors: Fire Protection Research Foundation, Fire Science and Technology Educators Section

T63 ­Reduced Ignition Propensity Cigarettes: Is There a Difference in the Smoldering Ignition Hazard? (PDF, 592 KB)
Presenter(s): Shivani Mehta, U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission
Legislation has passed in all 50 states of the United States allowing only cigarettes with reduced ignition propensity (RIP), also known as “fire safe cigarettes,” to be sold to consumers. Currently, the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) addresses the cigarette ignition risk for mattresses and mattress pads and has proposed a standard for the flammability of upholstered furniture that also addresses cigarette ignition risk. CPSC staff is evaluating the change in cigarette ignition hazard that may result from the use of fire safe cigarettes. Testing was conducted to assess the difference in the smoldering hazard of conventional (non-RIP) and RIP cigarettes on mattresses and mattress pads. This session describes the methodology, results, and analysis of the CPSC staff’s work.

T66 ­The State of the Science in Fireground Rehab (PDF, 810 KB)
Presenter(s): David Hostler, University of Pittsburgh
Exertional heat stress is a common but often unrecognized hazard for firefighters and other public safety personnel. Resulting from a combination of workload, environment, and protective clothing, exertional heat stress often places firefighters in jeopardy. There are multiple techniques to mitigate the effects of heat stress to both increase firefighter safety and continue effective operations on the fireground. Reporting on our experience with the Fireground Rehab Evaluation (FIRE) Trial and the Enhanced Firefighter Rehab (EFFoRT) Trial, this session will demonstrate multiple, low-cost ways to implement emergency incident rehab and how to scale the rehab response to match the intensity of the incident.
Sponsors: Fire Science and Technology Educators Section, Research Section

W07 Fire Performance in Earthquake Damaged Buildings: Overview of Test Program and Preliminary Findings (PDF, 1.1 MB)
Jin-Kyung Kim, Haejun Park and Brian Meacham, Worcester Polytechnic Institute
What happens if fire breaks out in a five-story building that has just gone through a 7.9 magnitude earthquake? To find out, a unique collaboration between government, academia, and industry conducted a $5 million test program involving construction of a five-story building on the world’s largest outdoor shake table at UC San Diego, subjecting the building to a range of ground motions, and then conducting live fire tests in various areas of the building. This session will outline the range of building and fire protection systems that were studied, describe the fire test program that was designed and carried out by WPI researchers and their project partners, and present representative data and preliminary findings on fire performance of the building and fire protection systems.
Sponsors: Fire Science and Technology Educators Section, Fire Protection Research Foundation, Research Section, Society of Fire Protection Engineers 

W22 Sprinkler Protection for Cloud Ceilings (PDF, 450 KB)
Jason Floyd, Hughes Associates, Inc.
The results of a Fire Protection Research Foundation funded project on sprinkler protection for cloud ceilings will be presented. A primary goal of the project was to determine conditions where sprinklers on the structural ceiling are not needed/effective. A review will be made of prior research on sprinkler protection for cloud ceilings. An overview will be given of experiments and modeling performed for the project to examine the impact of cloud ceiling configuration on sprinkler performance. Recommendations for sprinkler installation on cloud ceilings will be provided.
Sponsors: Architects, Engineers, & Building Officials Section, Fire Protection Research Foundation

W29 Applying Reliability Based Decision Making to ITM Frequency for Fire Protection Systems and Equipment (PDF, 140 KB)
Ken Dungan, Risk Technologies, LLC; Scot Futrell, Futrell Fire Consult & Design Inc.; John Hall, NFPA; Amanda Kimball, Fire Protection Research Foundation; William Koffel, Koffel Associates, Inc.
Many NFPA fire protection system standards contain requirements for periodic inspection, testing, and maintenance (ITM). These are often historical requirements that are not based on ITM data or on observed deficiencies. As NFPA develops new documents, such as NFPA 4, Standard for Integrated Fire Protection and Life Safety System Testing, the need for a more data-based approach to ITM frequencies will be important. Further, in the case of water-based systems, the required resources associated with testing are increasing at a rapid rate. Recently, four requests were received by the Fire Protection Research Foundation from NFPA Technical Committees to develop a project on a risk/reliability-based approach to ITM requirements. Although these requests and the applicable technical committees impacted by these topics are responsible for standards related to different fire protection systems that have unique ITM issues and purposes, the fundamentals of a reliability-based approach to determining desirable ITM frequency is the same. The Foundation carried out a workshop that involved the discussion of approaches to determining ITM frequency for a given fire protection system or equipment based on reliability concepts.
Sponsors: Fire Protection Research Foundation, Fire Science and Technology Educators Section

W35 Testing of a Passive Fire Protection Approach to IBCs in Operations (PDF, 392 KB)
Presenter(s): Joseph Scheffey, Hughes Associates, Inc.
The hazards associated with the use of non-listed, composite intermediate bulk containers (IBCs) in operations scenarios are severe; a potential mitigation strategy using a passive cellular glass insulation material, combined with a containment vessel, was explored. Initial tests characterized the potential liquid discharge (leak) scenarios from various size puncture areas in the side of composite IBCs; earlier predictions were validated. In the passive material tests, two scenarios were investigated: an unignited spill (ignition occurring after the spill has drained into the containment vessel); and, ignited spill, where an ignition source is intimate with leaking fuel. For unignited spills, the cellular glass insulation was very effective in reducing the overall heat threat. The cellular glass insulation was less effective for the ignited spill scenario.
Sponsors: Fire Protection Research Foundation, Industrial Fire Protection Section 

W41 Theoretical Approach to Discharge Criteria for Storage Occupancies Under Sloped Ceilings (PDF, 292 KB)
Kenneth Isman and Victoria Valentine,  National Fire Sprinkler Association
NFPA 13, Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems, does not provide the user with discharge criteria when the storage occupancy has a sloped ceiling over 2 in 12. This session will discuss a theoretical approach to determining such criteria on a case-by-case basis using computer models and successful fire testing. The goal is to determine the number and location of sprinklers likely to operate, as well as the pressure and flow necessary to discharge from the sprinklers to control or suppress the fire below.
Sponsor: Research Section 

W44 What Is the Latest From UL On Gasoline/Ethanol Blends? 
Presenter(s): Robert James and Alfredo Ramirez, UL
As North America continues to utilize gasoline/ethanol blend fuels, UL research has provided direction for the certification (listing) of dispensing equipment and components intended for use with gasoline/ethanol blends with a nominal ethanol concentration greater than 10% (e.g., E85, E25, and other blends).
Sponsor: International Fire Marshals Association

W48 Looking Ahead: The Fire Protection Research Foundation’s Strategic Research Agenda (PDF, 291 KB)
Presenter(s): Kathleen Almand, Fire Protection Research Foundation; William Haskell, NIOSH/NPPTL; Kevin Lippert, Eaton Corporation; Andre Marshall, University of Maryland
In 2008, the Fire Protection Research Foundation hosted a conference titled “Fire Protection and Safety: Preparing for the Next 25 Years” to celebrate the completion of its 25th year of service. The purpose of this conference was to attempt to provide some indication of what challenges fire protection will face in the next 25 years. The key issues identified that are likely to impact fire safety were urban growth patterns, demographic changes, cultural and societal attitudes, new materials, new technology, climate change, aging infrastructure, declining energy and other natural resources, and environmental sustainability. In 2013, the Foundation plans to again hold this conference to discuss the emerging demographic, technological, and environmental issues facing us. In preparation for this conference, the Foundation will be gathering information on these topics from various constituent groups of the Foundation and NFPA. This session will provide highlights from the 2008 conference, briefly discuss the research that has taken place in the last 5 years at the Foundation related to the key issues identified at the 2008 conference, and will ask attendees for feedback on these issues to use in the 2013 conference.
Sponsor: Fire Protection Research Foundation   

W49 Engineering Performance of Water Mist Fire Protection Systems with Antifreeze (PDF, 671 KB)
 Stephen Jaskolka, Jeffrey Rosen and Michael Szkutak, Worcester Polytechnic Institute 
The use of antifreeze in a water mist fire suppression system offers a potential alternative to the current applications of these systems in subfreezing environments. This session investigates the use of antifreeze of various chemical compositions and concentrations in water mist systems by evaluating variables for spray characteristics, risk of system failure, and interactions of the discharged agent with the fire. Extensive testing and analysis demonstrated that no antifreeze solution behaves ideally with respect to key study variables; however, some antifreeze solutions are potentially suitable at certain discharge pressures and solution concentrations. This testing provides the baseline information for the selection of such an antifreeze for use in water mist systems.
Sponsors: Building Fire Safety Systems Section, Fire Science and Technology Educators Section

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