Topic: Code Enforcement

Restaurant Fire Protection Basics

As we emerge from the shutdowns and limitations due to COVID-19, many of us are likely looking forward to the day when our favorite restaurant will be able to operate at full capacity. Full tables, a packed bar area, people sitting in a waiting area, and a ton of activity in the kitchen will be good for local businesses and for people’s need for more in-person social interaction. As we look forward to those days, this blog offers an introduction to some of the basic concepts that are used for the protection of customers, employees, and the building itself.  For the purpose of this blog, we’ll be talking about dine-in restaurants with full kitchen capabilities that are assembly occupancies (defined as having an occupant load of 50 or more persons). NFPA statistics show that for eating and drinking establishments, the majority of fires occur in the kitchen and specifically involve cooking equipment. With that in mind, this blog will center around kitchen safety, but first let’s address some of the general fire safety provision that also apply to dining areas. General Requirements Egress The ability for patrons to evacuate the restaurant in the event of a fire must be adequately provided and maintained. For restaurants with an occupant load of 50 or more, which would classify them as an assembly occupancy, the main entrance must be sized to be able to accommodate at least one half of the total occupant load. Other exits must be provided to handle the additional capacity with the total number being based on layout and maintaining acceptable travel distances. Some common areas of concern regarding safe egress include the arrangement of chairs and tables cutting down on the available aisle accessways as well secondary exits being locked, blocked, or obstructed by storage. Fire Alarm Whether or not a fire alarm system is required can come down to many variables but if it is a standalone building it is only required to be provided with a fire alarm system where the occupant load is greater than 300. Where  required, the system will need to be initiated by one of or a combination of manual operation (pull stations), automatic detection, or sprinkler system waterflow.  Notification of the occupants is required to be a voice announcement and include visible signals. Sprinkler Protection Sprinklers have not traditionally been required for all restaurants. Beginning with the 2021 edition of NFPA 101 Life Safety Code®, restaurants that are assembly occupancies of new construction will require sprinkler protection. Like fire alarms, a lot of variables can play into the need for sprinkler protection, including construction type, height, other uses of the building, and more. Where considering a standalone building used only as a restaurant its classification as an assembly occupancy does not require sprinkler protection for any existing construction unless it can also be considered a nightclub, dance hall, or discotheque in which case they are required for occupant loads over 100. Kitchen Fire Protection Wet-chemical extinguishing system As referenced earlier, the majority of fires in restaurants are caused by cooking equipment. For this reason, any cooking equipment used in processes that produce grease-laden vapors must be provided with ventilation and a fire extinguishing system. The fire extinguishing systems must be listed to UL 300 or equivalent standards which is currently only achieved by wet chemical extinguishing systems. The wet chemical is able to separate the oil and air for a sufficient amount of time to allow complete cooling. These systems are most commonly activated automatically through the use of fusible links that are in the exhaust airflow and have a manual release that can also be used by staff in the area. The manual release should be located in the path of egress from the space to allow for safe use.  Some common issues with the fixed extinguishing systems include the caps on discharge nozzles being taken off for day-to-day use. These caps prevent grease from getting into and clogging the nozzles and are designed to blow off when the system activates. The rearrangement or replacement of cooking equipment can also be problematic as the systems are specifically designed for the original equipment, changing these out without analyzing the system could result in a failure to extinguish a fire. Class-K Fire Extinguisher While the fixed extinguishing system is intended to be the primary means of extinguishment, at least one portable fire extinguisher is also required to be provided in the kitchen area. Extinguishers in kitchens need to be Class K to be appropriate for use on the cooking medium. Signage is required at the extinguisher in the form of a placard that is conspicuously placed near each Class K extinguisher that states that the fire protection system must be activated prior to using the fire extinguisher. Inspection and Maintenance Routine inspection and maintenance of cooking equipment, the hood and exhaust systems, and fire extinguishing equipment (including fire extinguishers) are vital to ensuring that protection is maintained consistently for the restaurant. In addition, instructions need to be provided to new employees on hiring and to all employees annually on the use of portable fire extinguishers and the manual actuation of the fire-extinguishing system. Hoods need to be inspected for grease buildup at a frequency that is typically semi-annually for most restaurants but can be more or less frequent, depending on the type and volume of cooking. When that inspection finds grease buildup the hood and exhaust system must be cleaned. NFPA 96 Standard for Ventilation Control and Fire Protection of Commercial Cooking Operations, 2021 2021 The fire extinguishing systems must be maintained at least every 6 months and all actuation and control components, including remote manual pull stations, mechanical and electrical devices, detectors, and actuators, must be tested for proper operation. Fusible links of the metal alloy type and automatic sprinklers of the metal alloy type must also be replaced at this interval. Summary This is meant to be a high level overview of some of the major fire protection and life concepts for restaurants. There are many more details on each of the items covered in this blog and there are others that were not included here but still must be provided for a full compliant arrangement. NFPA 96 Standard for Ventilation Control and Fire Protection of Commercial Cooking Operations, is a great place to start to find more information. NFPA 10 Standard for Portable Fire Extinguishers, NFPA 13 Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems, NFPA 72 National Fire Alarm and Signaling Code®, NFPA 101, and the locally adopted building code should all be referenced for a full understanding of the requirements. I hope this was helpful as an overview. If you have any questions or would like to see a more in-depth discussion on any of the items covered, please let me know in the comments.

A Better Understanding of NFPA 70E: The 2024 Edition of NFPA 70E

NFPA 70E®, Standard for Electrical Safety in the Workplace® is a safe work practice standard that is revised by the public and industry every three years. The revision cycle starts again this year. Many of you know that the main rule in electrical safety is to not work on equipment that is energized. This is what NFPA 70E and OSHA regulations require. There is seldom a need to put an employee at risk if you are honest about it. You also know that providing PPE is not a legitimate reason to put an employee at risk because things can and do go wrong even when performing the simplest task on unjustified, energized equipment. Although the rule to shut it off, lock it out and verify that it is deenergized has been around for nearly fifty years, no one has come up with something that is an as safe or safer method of protecting an employee from electrical injury. However, there are many other NFPA 70E requirements that do need to be changed with the times. NFPA does not change its standards. NFPA is a standards development organization responsible for administering NFPA 70E. In fact, to keep the process entirely independent, NFPA staff cannot submit a proposed change to a standard. This is where you come in. It is you who use the standard. And if you do, you know what issues hang you up. You know what it would take to make a requirement easier to understand, to clarify a safety issue or add a requirement to make your workplace safer. Your input could save a life by closing a safety gap that has appeared in current workplace. For those of you who knowingly do not use NFPA 70E, why is that? Do you think the requirements do not provide for your safety? Do you believe the requirements are waste of time to implement? This revision process is for you too. However, just because you believe a requirement is not worth implementing does not justify the need to remove it. Why does removing the requirement make a safer workplace? What alternative can you offer? If there is a fatality or injury reported that would have been prevented if that person did follow the requirement, you will be hard pressed to convince someone that it won’t happen again. To learn how to participate in the NFPA standards development process and submit proposed text for consideration by the responsible technical committee, please go to www.nfpa.org/submitpi for instructions. You can also submit an input by going to www.nfpa.org/70E and going to the next edition tab. When there, use the link to Submit a Public Input. You have until June 1, 2021 to submit your input for consideration during this revision cycle. Want to keep track of what is happening with the National Electrical Code® (NEC®)? Subscribe to the NFPA Network to stay informed of new content. The newsletter also includes NFPA 70E information such as my blogs.

Join NFPA as we Celebrate 125 Years of Protecting People and Property; Anniversary Conference Series Kicks off on May 18 with Electrical Program

NFPA is celebrating its 125th anniversary this year and we want to commemorate this momentous milestone with you! Since our founding in 1896, NFPA has been devoted to eliminating death, injury property, and economic loss due to fire, electrical, and related hazards. Working side-by-side with our members, colleagues, and countless other fire and life safety advocates from every industry across the globe, we have had a major impact on the public’s safety – we’re proud of the strides we have made over the past few decades in reducing the fire problem worldwide.  So it is with great excitement we’re announcing NFPA will be hosting a series of events and initiatives throughout the year that pay homage to the Association and its long history of dedication and collaboration. Key to the celebration is the launch of a virtual 125th Anniversary Conference Series that replaces the traditional in-person 2021 NFPA Conference & Expo. The series features 10 one-day programs for building, electrical, and life safety professionals and practitioners that collectively offer more than 100 informative education sessions, engaging content, industry roundtable discussions, networking opportunities, live chat sessions, and exhibitor demonstrations. Led by leading industry experts, the program sessions cover a broad range of topic areas from the impact of new technology on codes and standards and the use of data to drive safety, to community risk reduction and public education strategies aimed at protecting people and property. The sessions are designed to help you adjust to changing industry needs and more effectively and efficiently perform your daily work. The online conference series runs from May 2021 through March 2022 and will be available on demand during the year to allow for more schedule flexibility.  For those in the electrical industry, you do not want to miss the first program of the series that kicks off on May 18. The “Empowering Electrical Design, Installation, and Safety” one-day program has two learning tracks and nine sessions that focus on issues related to design and installation, new and emerging technology, and workplace safety in the electrical landscape. Whether you attend the live event in May or view the content on demand, the program will help you sharpen your skills and improve your knowledge as you earn CEU credits. Find out more on our webpage. With so much to celebrate, we hope you’ll join us for this year-long, unique educational opportunity. A safe world is our priority, and we look forward to our continued progress, working with all of you, during the next 125 years and beyond! Visit nfpa.org/conferenceseries to learn more about the series, the electrical program, and to see the full roster of upcoming events.
Exit doors

The Basics of Swinging-Type Egress Door Operation

Door assemblies serve multiple purposes that relate to the comfort and safety of building occupants. They provide protection from weather, reduction of noises from adjoining areas, prevent trespassing by unauthorized persons and slow or stop the spread of fire and smoke. While seemingly so commonplace, door assemblies can become an impediment to occupants if they are locked or inoperable.  Doors within a means of egress include those non-fire-rated, fire-rated and smoke-resisting door assemblies. None of these will perform properly if left open during a fire. There are many examples of fires where fatalities resulted because of doors that were left open. There are also examples of fires where lives were saved because a door leaf was closed. Unfortunately, there are those fires in which door openings needed for escape were blocked or locked, resulting in devastating losses. Just this week, an eight-alarm fire in Queens, New York City, displaced 240 residents and injured people, including 16 firefighters. The fire was reported to start in a unit on the top floor.  An occupant fleeing the building left the door open to the apartment unit, causing the fire to spread into the hallway and to other areas of the building.    To help ensure safe door operation during an emergency, considerations must be given to the type of door, width of opening and door leaves, door swing direction, encroachment, the force required to operate the door, and the locking and latching devices. Here we will focus on those fundamental operational features only for side-hinged or pivoted-swinging type egress doors as these include the majority of doors an occupant will likely face while egressing a building. Other door types may be permitted in lieu of swinging doors but these will be addressed separately.   Minimum Width Door openings must be of sufficient width to ensure that enough people can pass through the openings quickly and safely during egress. Too narrow of an opening, or not enough total available capacity can create bottlenecks, and obstruct the flow of occupants leaving as they move towards a safer area.   Minimum door width is prescribed as (1) clear width, (2) egress capacity width, or (3) leaf width and when a specific minimum width is required by the Code, the specific width will be refenced. Specifying a door leaf width (the width of the door leaf, not the opening) is the least common case, and more often a minimum clear width or egress capacity width is mandated. Door width measurements might be used in calculating egress capacity or in determining if a minimum door width requirement is met. Depending on the purpose for which the door width measurement is used, the allowable encroachments on opening width vary.   Measuring egress capacity width for a new door leaf that opens 90 degrees (Credit: NFPA 101 Handbook, 2021 edition)   Measuring egress capacity width for a new door leaf that opens 90 degrees (Credit: NFPA 101 Handbook, 2021 edition) Clear width of a door opening is used for meeting minimum door-opening requirements, not for determining egress capacity. In some cases this minimum clear width value is based on the need for occupants traveling in a wheelchair to be able to move the wheelchair through the door opening. The egress capacity width, used to determine how many occupants can be credited with passing through the opening safely, will be less than the actual door leaf width because deductions in width are made for certain encroachments that extends into the door opening. Note: This describes the types of various door width measurements, but users should reference Section 7.2.1.2 of NFPA 101 for further details about how to obtain these measurements in both new and existing conditions. Door Swing Direction Door leaves are required to swing in the direction of egress travel only if any one of the following three conditions exist:   The door serves a room or area with an occupant load of 50 or more,   The door assembly is used in an exit enclosure,  The door opening services a high-hazard contents area.    These three conditions address situations where it is undesirable for an occupant to take time to pull the door open in the direction they are moving from. This could be due to the higher number of occupants, or where conditions exist that could require instant and immediate access to the path of egress travel due to extreme fire or explosion risk.   Ideally, all door leaves in a means of egress would swing in the direction of egress travel. However, because of operational concerns, there are cases where door leaf swing in the direction of egress travel is not desirable. For example, a classroom door leaf that swings into a corridor serving as an exit access for several classrooms might open against another door leaf or against the flow of people and possibly restrict the width available as corridor exit access. The Code recognizes this danger and permits the classroom/corridor door leaf from a room with an occupant load of fewer than 50 persons to swing against the direction of egress travel.  Encroachment To minimize the risk of a door restricting the width available of other egress components, the Code establishes maximum encroachment allowances. During its swing, any door leaf in a means of egress is required to leave not less than one-half of the required width of where it is opening. When the door is fully open, is cannot project more than 7 in (180 mm) into the required width of the aisle, corridor, passage or landing unless the door is equipped with a proper self-closing device and swinging in the direction of egress travel. These two conditions help to ensure that the door leaf does not become an obstruction in the egress path onto which it opens which could reduce capacity and delay egress travel. There are no encroachment limitations for a door opening that provides access to a stair in an existing building. Door leaves capable of swinging a full 180 degrees have a greater utility than door leaves capable of swinging only 90 degrees. The 180-degree-swinging door leaf can be fully opened into a corridor without significant intrusion on corridor width. The 90-degree-swinging door leaf, however, might have to open into an unusually wide corridor, be set into an alcove, or otherwise be recessed so as not to exceed the maximum encroachment. Door leaf swing into a corridor (Credit: NFPA 101 Handbook, 2021 edition)   Door leaf encroachment on landing in new building. (Credit: NFPA 101 Handbook, 2021 edition) Unlatching Force  Several movements are necessary to move a door leaf from its closed to its fully open position. The force needed to unlatch the door assembly cannot exceed 15 lbf (67 N) for hardware that may push pull or slide and 28 in.-lbf for hardware that requires rotation. Additional limits are placed on the force to start the door leaf in motion and on the force necessary to move the door leaf to its required open position. Consideration must be made for persons with severe mobility impairment, such as someone using a wheelchair, who might find it difficult or impossible to exert excessive force to unlatch the door and put it in motion. Additional scenarios may render others incapable of exerting larger forces, so values as high as 50 lbf which were recognized in earlier editions of the Life Safety Code, are now only acceptable for existing installations.     Locking and Latching Doors within an occupant’s means of egress cannot be locked beyond their control but must also be designed to accommodate building’s and occupant needs for security.  If done incorrectly, door locking and latching can become a severe impediment to free and safe egress. The details and permissions for door locking and door latching are extensive, and must not be overlooked. We will address this subject in its entirety in a future blog (stay tuned!)    In conclusion, leaving a building or moving within a building to a point of safety in the event of an emergency is almost guaranteed to include using doors to get there. Proper door operation is critical to occupants being afforded a safe and efficient means of egress. Adequate door opening width, correct door swing direction, minimal encroachment, and appropriate opening and unlatching forces, combined, will work together to provide occupants with reliable and safe door operation.  (Note: Additional details and requirements related to door operation can be found in NFPA 101, Life Safety Code, Section 7.2.1.)
Katy, TX building under construction fire

NFPA Addresses Building Under Construction Fires with New Fire Prevention Program Manager Online Training and Webinar Panel on April 15

The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) launched a new Fire Prevention Program Manager Online Training Series today to help the building industry understand and adopt the strategies defined in NFPA 241 Standard for Safeguarding Construction, Alteration, and Demolition Operation. The topic will also be discussed by a panel of industry experts during an Addressing Fire Safety Challenges During Construction webinar on April 15. Fire Prevention Program Manager Online Training Series In recent weeks, massive building under construction fires have occurred in Las Vegas, NV, Dallas, TX, and Everett, WA, underscoring NFPA research which shows an average of 3,840 fires in structures under construction and 2,580 fires in structures under major renovation per year. Building under construction fires cause an average of four civilian deaths, 49 civilian injuries, and $304 million in direct property damage annually, while fires in buildings undergoing major renovation cause an average of eight civilian deaths, 52 civilian injuries, and $104 million in direct property damage annually. “This new online learning, centered around NFPA 241, was developed in the spirit of the NFPA Fire & Life Safety Ecosystem, which emphasizes the importance of applying referenced standards, investing in safety, and a skilled workforce,” NFPA President and CEO Jim Pauley said.  Although NFPA 241 calls for a fire prevention program manager, credentials for the role are virtually non-existent in the market today. To help construction company leaders, building owners, job site supervisors, code officials, fire marshals, facility managers, and fire protection engineers have the skills needed to ensure the safety of buildings under construction, NFPA developed the new five-hour, five-part online learning series, assessment, and digital badge based on the anticipated job performance requirements (JPRs) for fire prevention program managers proposed for the next edition of NFPA 241. The training covers general fire protection awareness for all people on construction sites and the role of fire prevention program managers on a construction project with an emphasis on: Building safety and fire protection systems Hazard protection Inspections, permits and procedures The NFPA online training series is intended for fire prevention program managers who are new to the role and is designed to help learn how to actively manage a fire prevention program for a typical construction project.  Addressing Fire Safety Challenges During Construction Webinar The NFPA webinar scheduled for April 15 will feature a panel of industry experts discussing key considerations for construction site fire safety, including fire risks and the role of the fire prevention program manager, with time allotted for a robust Q&A session. Webinar panelists providing perspective on the topic include: Jim Begley, PE, FSFPE, CFM, TERPconsulting, principal Matthew Bourque, PE, WS Development, director of Fire Protection and Construction Operations Dick Davis, PE, FM Global, AVP, senior engineering technical specialist Nicholas Dawe, division chief/fire marshal, Cobb County (GA) Fire and Emergency Services
Sprinkler pipe

Sprinkler System Basics: Types of Sprinkler Systems

When designing a sprinkler system one of the first decisions a designer has to make is what type of sprinkler system should be installed. Types of sprinkler systems permissible by NFPA 13, Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems, are wet, dry, preaction, and deluge. Other types of extinguishing systems, such as clean agent or water mist, are addressed by other standards. When selecting the appropriate sprinkler system type it is important to first understand the differences between the systems and then to understand how these differences can be beneficial, or detrimental, under certain conditions. Selecting the wrong system type can be costly. Wet Pipe Systems Wet pipe sprinkler systems are the most common. In this system the sprinkler piping is constantly filled with water. When the temperature at the ceiling gets hot enough the glass bulb or fusible link in a sprinkler will break. Since the system is already filled with water, water is free to flow out of that sprinkler head. Contrary to what Hollywood would have you think, not all sprinkler heads will operate at once in this type of system. The temperature around that specific sprinkler head needs to be high enough to break the glass bulb or fusible link that is holding water back. Once that happens, water will immediately start flowing from only that head. Wet pipe sprinkler systems are the most reliable and cost effective. Therefore, they should be the first type considered when selecting a sprinkler system. However, there are times when a wet pipe sprinkler system may not be appropriate. One of the major factors in determining if a wet pipe system can be used is the temperature of the space to be protected. Will all areas of the building where the sprinkler piping is located be conditioned to at least 40OF (4OC) or greater?  If the answer is yes, then there is no risk for the water in the piping to freeze and a wet system is the preferred method. However, if the answer is no, an additional study may need to be done to determine if an engineer can prove that although the temperature could drop below 40OF (4OC) it will never drop low enough for the water to freeze. If the temperature of the space cannot be guaranteed to eliminate the risk of freezing water, then a different system type should be chosen. Dry Pipe Systems Dry pipe systems are very similar to wet pipe systems with one major difference. The pipe is not constantly filled with water. Instead, the water is held behind a dry pipe valve usually some distance away from where the sprinklers are located. Like a wet pipe system, when the temperature at the ceiling becomes hot enough, the glass bulb or fusible link of the sprinkler breaks. However, in this case, water isn’t immediately available because the pipe is not water filled. Instead, air is released from the now open sprinkler head. This creates a drop in pressure causing the dry pipe valve to open and water to fill the system. Water will then flow from the open sprinkler head. Since there is a delay between sprinkler operation and water flow, the size of dry pipe systems is limited. The size limitation is intended to minimize the amount of time water delivery is delayed. A dry pipe system is a great option for unconditioned spaces, or locations where the temperature of the space cannot be guaranteed to be high enough to prevent water in the system from freezing. It is important to note that a least the portion of the building where the water comes in and the dry pipe valve is located will need to have temperatures hot enough to prevent freezing. Preaction Systems Of all the sprinkler system types perhaps the most complicated is the preaction system. There are three different types of preaction systems, a non-interlock system, a single interlock system, and a double interlock system. The main difference between preaction systems and wet and dry pipe systems is that a specific event (or events) must happen before water is released into the system. This might sound similar to a dry pipe system, but the differences lie in what event triggers the release of the water: For a non-interlock system: the operation of detection devices OR automatic sprinklers For a single interlock system: the operation of detection devices For a double interlock system: the operation of detection devices AND automatic sprinklers To better explain how these types of systems work, we’ll walk through an example using a room that is protected with sprinklers fed from a preaction system. In addition to sprinklers, the room has complete automatic heat detection. Typically, the detection system, will have a lower temperature rating than the sprinklers. This will help ensure that the detection system activates before a sprinkler head operates. In this case, heat detectors that have a rating of 135OF will serve as our detection system, and the sprinklers will have a temperature rating of 165OF. In a non-fire event, such as accidental damage to a sprinkler head that results in the glass bulb breaking, the system would fill with water in a non-interlock system, and water would flow from the broken sprinkler head. The same situation in a single interlock preaction system would not result in waterflow because the broken glass bulb will not trigger the system to be filled with water. Only the operation of detection devices will result in a water filled system for a single interlock system. In the same room, the non-interlock and single interlock systems operate very similarly if there was a fire event. The heat detectors should activate first since they have a lower temperature rating. For both a non-interlock and a single interlock system, the activation of the heat detectors would result in the system filling with water. Then, if the temperature continues to rise, a sprinkler will operate. Since the “event”, heat detection, has already happened, the system is filled with water, and we would expect it to act like a traditional wet pipe system. In this same situation, a double-interlock system will not fill with water upon the activation of the heat detection. Instead, the system will only fill with water after the activation of the heat detection system and the operation of a sprinkler head. Therefore, a delay in water delivery similar to what is seen for dry pipe systems will occur. For this reason, double interlock preaction systems have similar size restrictions as dry pipe systems, whereas non-interlock and single interlock are just limited to 1000 sprinkler heads per preaction valve. Additional considerations, other than temperature, may lead to the selection of another type of permitted sprinkler system. In some cases, there may be a desire to minimize the risk of water damage or to prevent the accidental filling of the system. In these cases, a single or double interlock system may be the preferred option. A single interlock system may be beneficial in museums, computer rooms, or similar settings where water damage is a concern. This would eliminate the risk of accidental water flow if a sprinkler head was damaged. Although NFPA 13 does not specifically prohibit the use of double interlock systems in these types of spaces, the double interlock preaction system was not developed for these situations. It was intended for use in freezer storage warehouses, or in similar situations where the accidental presence of water in the piping system will lead to expensive remediation. It is important to consider the delay in water delivery that occurs with a double interlock preaction system before selecting that system type. If it is used in a museum or similar type of environment, the delay in water delivery would allow the fire to continue to grow which could result in additional sprinklers opening. In turn, this could increase the water damage and result in a larger portion of the building being involved. Deluge systems are similar to preaction systems in that they use another type of detection for operation. However, the biggest difference is that deluge systems use open sprinklers or nozzles. Instead of getting water flow from individual heads that have operated, once water fills the system, water will flow from every sprinkler head. Much like a preaction system, a deluge valve will keep water from filling the system until the operation of another type of detection system, such as smoke detection. Once that detection system is activated, water not only fills the system but flows from the open sprinklers or nozzles. Another consideration in the selection of the type of sprinkler system is the level of hazard being protected. If protecting an area of very high hazard, such as aircraft hangers, a deluge system may be the most suitable. Each system type has its own unique benefits. It is important to consider the pros and cons of each system type when selecting which sprinkler system is appropriate for your specific environment. An entire building may be protected with a combination of systems. For example, one of the more common designs in the Northeast is to protect the portions of the building that are conditioned with a wet pipe system and to use dry pipe systems in the attic and other unconditioned areas. Combining different types of systems for full building protection allows the designer to consider each unique environment and apply the most appropriate system type to that space without sacrificing what is best for other areas of the building.
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