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Sprinkler performance and benefits research

NFPA's Fire Sprinkler Initiative provides the latest research reports showcasing the effectiveness and benefits of home fire sprinklers.

Impact of Home Fire Sprinkler System Requirements in California
NFPA, 2018
In 2011, California issued a statewide requirement for fire sprinkler installation in new one- and two-family homes. This project will explore the economic impact of home fire sprinklers as it relates to the housing market by using California as a case study. This research compares the economic impact as measured primarily from building permit activity from pre-2011 when sprinklers were not required to the current status. 

U.S. Experience with Sprinklers 
NFPA, 2017
The report includes statistics on how often sprinklers are reported in fires, by property use, and their estimated impact in reducing the average loss of life and property per fire. Data also highlights the performance, usage, and reliability of sprinklers, as well as leading reasons when systems fail to operate or operate but are ineffective. 

Sprinkler Successes in One- and Two-Family Homes and Apartments
NFPA, 2017
This collection of previously published incidents was compiled from NFPA's studies of large-loss fires and the Firewatch column in NFPA Journal, the member magazine of the National Fire Protection Association. These anecdotes indicate that sprinklers are highly effective, reliable weapons in the fight to save lives and property from fire.

Stakeholder Perceptions of Home Fire Sprinklers
NFPA, 2016
As home fire sprinkler adoption is debated in many states, there is a lot of misinformation about the experience and perception of home fire sprinklers. The purpose of this study was to gather information related to statewide, fire sprinkler requirements in California and Maryland. It includes an analysis of the overall experience and perceived value of home fire sprinklers by homeowners, local government officials, and water purveyors.

Sprinkler Impact on Fire Injury
NFPA, 2012 
While there has long been data correlating sprinklers with reductions in deaths and property loss, recent research also shows a significant impact on injury cost when sprinklers are present. Sprinklers reduce civilian fire injury medical costs by 53 percent, civilian fire injury total costs by 41 percent, and lead to an estimated 65 percent reduction in firefighter fireground injuries.

Impact of Home Sprinklers on Firefighter Injuries 
NFPA, 2012
(addendum to NFPA's 2012 "U.S. Experience with Sprinklers" report)
When compared to structure fires in homes with no automatic extinguishing equipment present, analysis of home structure fires with wet-pipe sprinklers present showed a 65 percent reduction in firefighter injuries at the fireground per 1,000 home structure fires.  

Residential Sprinkler Systems: Consideration of Policy and Litigation Strategies for Reducing Residential Fire Injuries
The Network for Public Health Law, 2011 
In recent decades, the homebuilding industry, with a few exceptions, has generally opposed policy efforts to mandate the inclusion of sprinkler systems in new one- and two- family homes, asserting that such a mandate would make new homes too expensive for some potential buyers. This report outlines how litigation can be used as a strategy for change.

Communities with Home Fire Sprinklers: The Experience in Bucks County, Pennsylvania 
Produced in collaboration with the Bucks County Fire Marshals Association for the Home Fire Sprinkler Coalition, 2011
Between 1988-2010, there were 90 home fire fatalities in non-sprinklered, one- and two-family homes in Bucks County, PA. During that same time, there were zero fire fatalities in homes protected by fire sprinklers. This report also details average property loss in sprinklered vs. non-sprinklered homes. 

Sprinkler Insulation: A Literature Review 
NFPA, 2011
Recent research and experience with antifreeze in home fire sprinkler systems has resulted in limitations on its use in this application. This literature review was conducted at the request of NFPA's Technical Committee on Residential Sprinkler Systems. Its scope is to identify and gather all pertinent articles that have been published in relation to the use of insulation within residential facilities to protect sprinkler piping from freezing conditions.

Incentives for the Use of Residential Fire Sprinkler Systems in U.S. Communities 
NFPA, 2010
The use of residential fire sprinkler systems in new U.S. homes is becoming increasingly common due to building codes and ordinances, as well as recognition of the life safety benefits which these systems provide. To evaluate the nature and impact of incentives, this research identified, characterized, and estimated the approximate value of sprinkler system incentives found in U.S. communities. In-depth interviews were conducted with 16 communities that each offered one or more incentives to encourage the use of sprinkler systems in new, single-family homes.

The Environmental Impact of Automatic Fire Sprinklers 
FM Global and the Home Fire Sprinkler Coalition, 2010
The findings of a groundbreaking study show that greenhouse gases released by burning buildings can be reduced by 98 percent when automatic fire sprinklers are installed. The study also found that automatic fire sprinklers reduce fire damage by up to 97 percent; reduce water usage to fight a home fire by upwards of 90 percent; and reduce the amount of water pollution released into the environment. 

Comparative Analysis of Housing Cost and Supply Impacts of Sprinkler Ordinances at the Community Level
NFPA, 2009
The purpose of this research is to investigate whether the imposition of sprinkler ordinances within a jurisdiction had a measureable impact on the housing construction or prices in that municipality relative to comparable nearby communities without such an ordinance.

Prince George's County 15-Year History with its Single-Family Residential Dwelling Fire Sprinkler Ordinance
Home Fire Sprinkler Coalition, 2009
Through a partnership with HFSC, the Maryland State Fire Marshal's Office, the Prince George's County (MD) Fire Department, and the University of Maryland University College, this study reviews Prince George's County's experience with an ordinance mandating the installation of automatic fire sprinkler systems in new one- and two-family structures over a 15-year period.